Professor Caroline Mansfield (PhD)

Professor Caroline Mansfield

Executive Dean
BA, Grad Dip, M.Ed, PhD.

Email: caroline.mansfield1@nd.edu.au
Phone: 9433 0175

  • Biography

    Dr Caroline Mansfield is Professor and Dean of the School of Education. As a passionate teacher educator, Caroline has taught undergraduate and postgraduate courses regarding effective teaching and strategies to enhance student learning. Caroline’s research focuses on teacher resilience and the personal and contextual resources that enable teachers to maintain engagement, commitment and motivation, and thrive throughout their career. Furthermore, Caroline has a keen interest in how higher education programmes can prepare aspiring teachers to successfully manage the challenges of the teaching profession.

    Caroline has led successful projects in the field of teacher resilience, namely Keeping Cool (2009-2012) and BRiTE: Building Resilience in Teacher Education (https://www.brite.edu.au) (2013-2015). Completed in 2015, the five online learning modules developed in the BRiTE project are being widely used nationally by pre-service and practicing teachers, and have also attracted international users in the UK, Europe, USA and Canada. Caroline partnered in the European project, Enhancing Teacher Resilience in Europe (2013-2015), and has also worked with veterinarians in the project VetSet2Go: Building Veterinary Employability (2015-2017).

    Caroline has received awards of excellence for research, teaching and service to the community. In 2016, she became an Australian Teaching and Learning Fellow, having won a National Teaching Fellowship to continue her work regarding resilience in higher education (www.stayingbrite.edu.au).

  • Teaching areas

    • Teaching and Learning
    • Educational Psychology
  • Research expertise and supervision

    • Teacher resilience
    • Teacher motivation and efficacy
    • Teacher collaborative professional learning
    • Pre-service teachers’ learning
    • Student motivation

    Current postgraduate research students

    • Nancy Bonfiglio-Pavasich (PhD) Effective mentoring experiences of early career teachers in non-metropolitan Catholic schools in Western Australia.
    • Johanne Klap (PhD, Murdoch University) An investigation into the effects of mindfulness on school principal’s leadership and wellbeing.
    • Melinda Bell (PhD, Murdoch University) Defining employability for the veterinary context, and assessing employability in the veterinary undergraduate.
    • Sian Bennett (PhD, Murdoch University) Understanding enabling student well-being at University: moving from enabling program through to undergraduate study 
    • Pauna Troung (PhD, Murdoch University) An investigation into the impacts of participation in non-formal youth environmental programs in the City of Mandurah, WA.
    • Alison Hilton (MEd, Murdoch University) The lived experiences of students undertaking LANTITE in Western Australia.
    • Drew Mayhills (MEd, Murdoch University) Courageous conversations: the role of coaching in early career teacher growth, resilience and retention

    Completions

    • Helen Dempsey (PhD, 2017) How do casual beginning teachers in Western Australia experience their work in their first years of teaching?
    • Katie Roe (PhD, 2015) Zoo education: a comparative international study of zoo intentions and the visitor experience.
    • Elaine Lewis (EdD, 2012) The impact of Education for Sustainability at a Montessori school.
    • Karen Kimmel (PhD, 2011) University students’ intercultural interactions and attitudes: Patterns and insights from a person-in-multiple contexts perspective.
    • Melanie Susinetti (MEd, 2011) Student achievement goals and assessment preferences in an outcomes-based secondary classroom.
  • Books

    Wosnitza, M., Peixoto, F., Beltman, S., & Mansfield, C. F. (Eds.). (2018). Resilience in Education: Concepts, Contexts and Connections. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

  • Book chapters

    • Mansfield, C. F., Papatraianou, L. H., McDonough, S., & King, L. (2018). Building resilience in times of uncertainty and complexity: Teacher educator perceptions of preservice teacher resilience. In D. Heck & A. Ambrosetti (Eds.), Teacher Education in and for uncertain times (pp. 83-98): Springer.
    • Beltman, S., & Mansfield, C. F. (2018). Resilience in Education: An Introduction. In M. Wosnitza, F. Peixoto, S. Beltman, & C. F. Mansfield (Eds.), Resilience in Education: Concepts, Contexts and Connections (pp. 3-9). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
    • Beltman, S., Mansfield, C. F., Wosnitza, M., Weatherby-Fell, N., & Broadley, T. (2018). Using Online Modules to Build Capacity for Teacher Resilience. In M. Wosnitza, F. Peixoto, S. Beltman, & C. F. Mansfield (Eds.), Resilience in Education: Concepts, Contexts and Connections (pp. 237-253). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
    • Mansfield, C. F., Ebersöhn, L., Beltman, S., & Loots, T. (2018). Great Southern Lands: Making Space for Teacher Resilience in South Africa and Australia. In M. Wosnitza, F. Peixoto, S. Beltman, & C. F. Mansfield (Eds.), Resilience in Education: Concepts, Contexts and Connections (pp. 53-71). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
    • Helker, K., Mansfield, C. F., Wosnitza, M., & Stiller, H. (2018). An Exploratory Interview Study of University Teacher Resilience. In M. Wosnitza, F. Peixoto, S. Beltman, & C. F. Mansfield (Eds.), Resilience in Education: Concepts, Contexts and Connections (pp. 185-201). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
    • Mansfield, C. F., Beltman, S., Weatherby-Fell, N., & Broadley, T. (2016). Classroom Ready?: Building Resilience in Teacher Education. In R. Brandenberg, S. McDonough, J. Burke, & S. White (Eds.), Teacher Education - Innovation, Interventions and Impact (pp. 211-229) Singapore: Springer.
  • Journal articles and proceedings

    • Cake, M., Mansfield, C. F., McArthur, M., Zaki, S., & Matthew, S. (accepted). An exploration of the career motivations stated by early career veterinarians in Australia. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education.
    • Bell, M. A., Cake, M. A., & Mansfield, C. F. (2018). Beyond Competence: Why We Should Talk About Employability in Veterinary Education. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 45(1), 27-37. doi:10.3138/jvme.0616-103r1
    • Helker, K., Wosnitza, M., Mansfield, C. F., & Eugster, B. (2018). “I don’t have time to do any of the things I am responsible for” – University Teachers’ Sense of Responsibility for Teaching. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 30(2), 207-222.
    • Yang, Y., Volet, S., & Mansfield, C. (2017). Motivations and influences in Chinese international doctoral students’ decision for STEM study abroad. Educational Studies, 1-15. doi:10.1080/03055698.2017.1347498
    • McArthur, M., Mansfield, C. F., Matthew, S., Zaki, S., Brand, C., Andrews, J., & Hazel, S. (2017). Resilience in veterinary students and the predictive role of mindfulness and self-compassion. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 44(1), 106-115. doi:10.3138/jvme.0116-027R1
    • Cake, M., McArthur, M., Matthew, S. M., & Mansfield, C. F. (2017). Finding the balance: Uncovering resilience in the veterinary literature. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 44(1), 95-105. doi:10.3138/jvme.0116-025R
    • Mansfield, C., & Thompson, G. (2016). The value of collaborative rounds for teacher professional learning in Australia. Professional Development in Education, 1-19. doi:10.1080/19415257.2016.1216883
      Veitch, S., Johnson, S., & Mansfield, C. F. (2016). Collaborating to embed the teaching and assessment of literacy in Education: A targeted unit approach. Journal of Academic Language and Learning, 10(2), A-1 - A-10.
    • Mansfield, C. F., Beltman, S., Broadley, T., & Weatherby-Fell, N. (2016). Building resilience in teacher education: An evidenced informed framework. Teaching and Teacher Education, 54, 77-87. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2015.11.016
    • Beltman, S., Mansfield, C. F., & Harris, A. (2015). Quietly sharing the load? The role of school psychologists in enabling teacher resilience. School Psychology International. doi:10.1177/0143034315615939
      Fried, L., Mansfield, C. F., & Dobozy, E. (2015). Teacher emotion research: Introducing a conceptual model to guide future research. Issues in Educational Research, 25(4), 415-441.  Retrieved from http://www.iier.org.au/iier25/fried.pdf
    • Hornstra, L., Mansfield, C., van der Veen, I., Peetsma, T., & Volman, M. (2015). Motivational teacher strategies: the role of beliefs and contextual factors. Learning Environments Research. doi: 10.1007/s10984-015-9189-y
    • Mansfield, C. F., Beltman, S., & Price, A. (2014). ‘I’m coming back again!’ The resilience process of early career teachers. Teachers and Teaching, 20(5), 547-567. doi: 10.1080/13540602.2014.937958
      Mansfield, C.F. & Beltman, S. (2014) Teacher motivation from a goal content perspective: Beginning teachers’ goals for teaching. International Journal of Educational Research, 65, 54-64. doi: 10.1016/j.ijer.2013.09.010
    • Mansfield, C.F. & Volet, S.E. (2014). Impact of structured group activities on pre-service teachers’ beliefs about classroom motivation: An exploratory study. Journal of Education for Teaching. International research and pedagogy, 40(2), 155-172. doi: 10.1080/02607476.2013.869967
    • Mansfield, C.F. & Woods-McConney, A. (2012). “I didn’t always perceive myself as a science person”: Examining sources of efficacy for primary science teaching. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37(10), 37-52.
    • Mansfield, C.F. (2012). Rethinking motivation goals for adolescents: Beyond achievement goals. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 61(4), 564-584.  
      Klassen, R., Al-Dhafri, S., Mansfield, C.F., Purwanto, E., Siu, A., Wong, M.W., & Woods-McConney, A. (2012). Teachers’ engagement at work: An international validation study. The Journal of Experimental Education, 80(4), 317-337.
    • Mansfield, C.F., Wosnitza, M. & Beltman, S. (2012). Goals for teaching: Toward a framework for examining motivation of graduating teachers. Australian Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 12, 21-34.
    • Mansfield, C. F., Beltman, S., Price, A., & McConney, A. (2012). “Don’t sweat the small stuff:” Understanding teacher resilience at the chalkface. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(3), 357-367.
    • Price, A.E., Mansfield, C.F. & McConney, A. (2012). Considering ‘teacher resilience’ from critical discourse and a labour process theory perspectives. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 33(1), 81-95.
    • Beltman, S., Mansfield, C.F. & Price, A. (2011) Thriving not just surviving: A review of research on teacher resilience. Educational Research Review, 6, 185-207. doi: 10.1016/j.edurev.2011.09.001
    • Mansfield, C.F. & Volet, S.E. (2010). Developing beliefs about classroom motivation: Journeys of preservice teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(7), 1404-1415.
    • Mansfield, C. F., & Wosnitza, M. (2010). Motivation goals during adolescence: A cross-sectional perspective. Issues in Educational Research, 20(2), 149-165.
    • Mansfield, C.F. (2010) Motivating adolescents: What goals are important to Australian students? Australian Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 10, 44-55.
    • Mansfield, C.F. (2009) Managing multiple goals in real learning contexts. International Journal of Educational Research, 48(4), 286-298.
    • Lewis, E., Baudains, C. M. & Mansfield, C. (2009) The Impact of AuSSI-WA at a Primary School. Australian Journal of Environmental Education, 25, 45-57.
    • Lewis, E., Baudains, C. M. & Mansfield, C. (2009).  Engaging Students in Science: Turtle Nestwatch.  Teaching Science: The Journal of the Australian Science Teachers Association, 55(1), 50-53.
    • Lewis, E., Mansfield, C. & Baudains, C. M. (2008).  Getting down and dirty: Values in education for sustainability. Issues in Educational Research, 18(2), 138-155.
    • Lewis, E., Baudains, C. M. & Mansfield, C. (2008).  Making waves: Engaging science projects. SCIOS: Journal of the Science Teachers’ Association of Western Australia, 44(2), 18-19.
    • Lewis, E., Mansfield, C., Baudains, C., Marcus, L. & Dundas, B. (2008).  Healing the Swan: Integrating Science. SCIOS: Journal of the Science Teachers’ Association of Western Australia, 44(3), 16-19.
    • Volet, S., & Mansfield, C. (2006). Group work at university: significance of personal goals in the regulation strategies of students with positive and negative appraisals. Higher Education Research and Development, 25(4), 341-356.
  • Conference papers

    2010-2018

    • Mansfield, C.F., McDonough, S. & Papatraianou, L. (2018). Building resilience in times of uncertainty and complexity: teacher educator perceptions of pre-service teacher resilience. Paper presented at the Australian Teacher Educators Association conference, Melbourne.
    • Mansfield, C.F. & Beltman, S. (2018). “Helping people stay in teaching”:  A BRiTE approach to building teacher resilience in Australia. Paper presented at the World Federation of Associations of Teacher Education bi-annual conference, Melbourne.
    • Mansfield, C. F., & Beltman, S. (2017). BRiTE Beginnings: Building Resilience in Teacher Education. Paper presented at the International Study Association for Teachers and Teaching (ISATT), Salamanca, Spain.
    • Mansfield, C. F., & Beltman, S. (2017). "Helping people stay in teaching": An approach to building teacher resilience in Australia. Paper presented at the Pathways to Resilience IV Conference, Cape Town, South Africa.
    • Mansfield, C. F., Beltman, S., Weatherby-Fell, N., & Broadley, T. (2016). Classroom ready? Building resilience in teacher education. Paper presented at the Australian Teacher Education Association, Ballarat, Victoria.
    • Mansfield, C. F., Ebersöhn, L., Beltman, S., & Loots, T. (2016). Great Southern Lands: Making space for teacher resilience in South Africa and Australia. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, Washington DC.
    • Beltman, S., Mansfield, C.F., Weatherby-Fell, N. & Broadley, T. (2015). Using online modules to develop pre-service teachers’ capacity for resilience. Paper presented in the symposium “Beginning teacher resilience: Making a difference” at the Australian Association for Research in Education conference, Fremantle, Australia, December.
    • Beltman, S., Mansfield, C.F., Weatherby-Fell, N. & Broadley, T. (2015). Building Resilience in Teacher Education: The Development of Online Modules. Paper presented in the symposium “Teacher Resilience: What we know and what we do” at the European Association of Learning and Instruction bi-annual conference, Limassol, Cyprus, August.
    • Mansfield, C.F., Beltman, S., Weatherby-Fell, N. & Broadley, T. (2015). Resilience Research and Teacher Education. Paper presented in the symposium “Resilience and Teachers: Synergies between research and practice” at the European Association of Learning and Instruction bi-annual conference, Limassol, Cyprus, August.
    • Mansfield, C.F., Beltman, S., Broadley, T. & Weatherby-Fell, N. (2015). Using the past to plan for the future: A BRiTE approach in Teacher Education. Paper presented at the annual forum of the Western Australian Institute for Educational Research, Notre Dame University, Perth, August.
    • Mansfield, C.F., Beltman, S., Weatherby-Fell, N. & Broadley, T. (2015). Preparing teachers to thrive: Using BRiTE in Teacher Education. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Australian Teacher Education Association, Darwin, July.
    • Mansfield, C.F., & Broadley, T., Beltman, S., & Weatherby-Fell, N. (2015). BRiTE: Building Resilience in Teacher Education. Teaching and Learning Forum, University of Western Australia, January 30th.
    • Broadley, T., Mansfield, C., Beltman, S. & Weatherby-Fell, N. (2014). Innovating Resilience Resources through BRiTE Online Modules. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2014 (pp. 2432-2434). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Retrieved November 14, 2014 from http://academicexperts.org/conf/edmedia/2014/papers/43214/
    • Mansfield, C.F., Beltman, S., Broadley, T. & Weatherby-Fell, N. (2014) BRiTE: Keeping Cool by Building Resilience in Teacher Education.  Paper presented at the annual conference of the Australian Teacher Education Association, Sydney, July.
    • Mansfield, C.F., Beltman, S. & Wosnitza (2013, December)"I want to be the best teacher I can be": Exploring beginning teachers' professional goals”.  Paper presented in the symposium “Teacher Quality and Professional Development: Challenges for Future Teachers” at the annual meeting of the Australian Association for Research in Education, Adelaide.
    • Beltman, S. & Mansfield, C.F. (2013, August). Developing capacity for teacher resilience. Paper presented in the invited symposium, ‘A cross-national perspective on teacher resilience’ at the bi-annual conference of the European Association for Learning and Instruction, Munich.
    • Beltman, S. & Mansfield, C.F. (2013, July) Understanding beginning teachers’ professional goals. Paper presented in the symposium ‘Looking forward, looking back: Messages from pre-service and early career teachers’, at the annual conference of the Australian Teacher Education Association conference, Brisbane.
    • Fried, L., Mansfield, C.F. & Dobozy (2012, December) Teacher Emotion Research 2003-2011: Constructing a conceptual model for future research Paper presented at the annual conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education, Sydney.
    • Mansfield, C.F. & Beltman, S. (2012, July). Building Teacher Resilience: Research and Potential for Teacher Education. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Australian Teacher Education Association, Adelaide.
    • Mansfield, C.F., Beltman, S., Price, A., (2011, December).“Don’t Sweat the Small Stuff”: Examining Four Dimensions of Teacher Resilience. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education, Hobart.
    • Mansfield, C.F. & Woods-McConney, A., (2011, December)“I Didn’t Always Perceive Myself as a Science Person”: Examining Development of Efficacy for Science Teaching in Primary Schools. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education, Hobart.
    • Mansfield, C.F., Beltman, S. & Wosnitza, M. (2011, August). Goals for teaching: A goal content approach to understanding teacher motivation. Paper presented in the symposium ‘Teacher goals: Theory development and future research’ at the bi-annual conference of the European Association for Research in Learning and Instruction. Exeter, United Kingdom.
    • Beltman, S., Wosnitza, M. & Mansfield, C. (2011, August). Teacher Resilience: Conceptualisations, research and practice. Paper presented at the bi-annual conference of the European Association for Research in Learning and Instruction. Exeter, United Kingdom.
    • Mansfield, C.F. & Price, A.E., Beltman, S., McConney, A., Wosnitza, M. & Pelliccione, L. (2010, December). Keeping Cool: Building resilience in initial teacher education curriculum. Paper presented in the symposium ‘New ways of investigating early career teacher retention: Resilience theory’ at the annual conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education, Melbourne.
    • Mansfield, C.F. & Volet, S.E. (2010, September). Developing beliefs about classroom motivation: Journeys of student teachers. 12th International Conference on Motivation. Porto, Portugal.
      Beltman, S., Wosnitza, M., McConney, A., Mansfield, C.F., Price, A. & Pelliccione, L. (2010, September) Teachers’ motivation and self-efficacy at the beginning of their career. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Motivation, Porto, Portugal.
    • Beltman, S., Mansfield, C.F., Price, A., McConney, A., Wosnitza, M. & Pelliccione, L. (2010, August) Teacher resilience: A systematic review of recent literature. Paper presented at the 25th West Australian Institute of Educational Research Forum, Perth.
    • Beltman, S., Mansfield, C.F., Price, A., McConney, A., Wosnitza, M. & Pelliccione, L. (2010, July) Teacher resilience: A review of current literature. Paper presented at the 27th International Congress of Applied Psychology, Melbourne.
    • Price, A., Mansfield, C.F., McConney, A., Beltman, S., Wosnitza, M. & Pelliccione, L. (2010, June) Toughen up princess. Paper presented at the Comparative Education Conference, Istanbul.
  • Original creative works

    BRiTE: Building Resilience in Teacher Education http://www.brite.edu.au

  • Professional affiliations

    Australian Council of Deans of Education
    Australian Learning and Teaching Fellows
    Australian Teacher Education Association
    Australian Association for Educational Research
    European Association of Research in Learning and Instruction
    Western Australian Institute of Educational Research

  • Community engagement

    • Secretary, Western Australian Institute of Educational Research, 2010-2014
    • Executive Committee Member: West Australian Institute for Educational Research, 2008-2017.
    • Assistant copy editor: Issues in Educational Research, 2010 - 2011.
    • Chair, Postgraduate Awards Committee, Australian Association for Research in Education, 2010-2011
    • External reviewer for numerous academic journals including: Teaching and Teacher Education, Learning and Instruction, American Educational Research Journal, European Journal of Teacher Education, Journal of Educational Policy, Journal of Intercultural Studies.
    • School Board Chair: St Augustine’s Catholic Primary School, Rivervale, WA. 2003-2009

    Invited presentations:

    • Mansfield, C.F. (2018, March). Bouncing forward: Being your best in the early years. Invited keynote for Catholic Education WA Early Career Teacher Network Day. Perth.
    • Mansfield, C.F. (2018, February). WiL: What works in the classroom? Invited contribution in panel discussion - Where there’s a WiL there’s a way. Universities Australia Conference, Canberra.
    • Mansfield, C. F. (2017, November). Bouncing forward: A journey of resilience research. Invited keynote presentation at the Murdoch Annual Research Symposium, Murdoch University.
    • Mansfield, C.F. (2017, February). Interdisciplinary perspectives on employability: Building teacher resilience. Invited keynote at the Inaugural Veterinary Employability Forum, Gold Coast, Australia.
    • Mansfield, C.F. (2016, October). Teacher education in Australia: Building classroom ready teachers. Invited presentation at Beijing Normal University, China.
    • Mansfield, C.F. (2016, October). Teacher resilience: Research from multiple perspectives. Invited presentation at Beijing Normal University, China.
    • Beltman, S. & Mansfield, C.F. (2014, November). Resilience in Educators. Invited presentation at the Child Australia Conference: Understanding behaviour: learning to respond, Perth.
    • Mansfield, C.F. (2014, July). Teacher Resilience - an Australian Perspective. Invited presentation at the Discussion Series for the Centre for the Study of Resilience. University of Pretoria.
    • Mansfield, C.F. (2012, September). Promoting resilience for teachers and their students: A four dimensional view. Invited presentation at the Children’s Hospital Educational Research Institute (CHERI) conference. Sydney.
    • Mansfield, C.F. & Beltman, S. (2012, March). Keeping Cool: What makes a resilient teacher? Invited presentation for the Western Australian Institute of Educational Research. Curtin University, Perth.
  • Awards

    • Australian Office of Learning and Teaching’s National Teaching Fellowship, May, 2016.
    • Professional Teaching Council of Western Australia Outstanding Professional Service Award, October, 2013.
    • Murdoch University’s Vice Chancellor’s Excellence in Teaching Awards, 2009: Early Career Teaching. (Also nominated in 2006, 2007 and 2008)
    • West Australian Institute of Educational Research Postgraduate Research Prize (May, 2003)
  • Other

    Successful funding applications

    • Papatraianou, L., Strangeways, A., Mansfield, C.F., Beutel, D., McDonough, S (2017). Exploring teacher educator’s embodied experiences of resilience in changing times: Developing a heuristic framework of wellbeing ($10,000). Australian Association for Research in Education Strategic Grant.
    • Mansfield, C.F. (2016) Promoting resilience in higher education: A collaborative approach to curriculum development for student resilience in teacher education ($90,000). OLT National Teaching Fellowship. Australia: Office of Learning and Teaching.
    • Cake, M., Bell, M., Schull, D., McArthur, M., Hamood, W., Feakes, A., Rhind, S., Mossop, L., Matthew, S., Mansfield, C.F. & Zaki, S. (2015). VetSetGO: A collaborative outcomes and assessment framework building employability, resilience and veterinary graduate success ($349, 000). Australia: Office of Learning and Teaching.
    • Wosnitza, M., Morgan, M., Nevralova, K., Cefai, C., Henkel, M., Peixoto, F., Beltman, S. & Mansfield, C. F. (2013). Keeping Cool Europe – Enhancing Teacher REsilience in Europe. (300, 000 EURO). Europe: European Union.
    • Mansfield, C. F., Beltman, S., Broadley, T., & Weatherby-Fell, N. (2013). BRiTE: Keeping Cool by Building Resilience in Teacher Education ($150, 000). Australia: Office of Learning and Teaching.
    • Mansfield, C. F., Price, A., McConney, A., Beltman, S., Pelliccione, L., & Wosnitza, M. (2010). Keeping Cool: Embedding resilience in the initial teacher education curriculum ($217, 000). Australia: Australian Learning and Teaching Council.